Kneisel (2009) identifies minor symptoms as anxiety, agitation and irritability. These symptoms progress to include tremor, elevated blood pressure and elevated heart rate, low grade fever, headache and sweating. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may be present. There may be sleep disturbance and nightmares. The symptoms of minor withdrawal may be experienced for 48-72 hours and can be prevented from progressing to major withdrawal with treatment.